James H.Lockwood: (1793-1857)
     He was the son of Ezekiel Lockwood Jr. & Sarah Beckran (Brockran/Brochraw) born at Peru, N.Y.  James married Julia Warner in 1824 and they had a son (James Jr.) & a daughter born in 1820.
     During the War of 1812 James was a sutler at Buffalo, N.Y. and after the end of the war accompanied an American regiment to Detroit as a sutler employed by Lewis Rouse in July of 1815. He left Detroit for Mackinac Is., traveling with Ramsey Crooks who was on his way west to manage John J.Astor's newly purchased South-West Fur Company, arriving in August. In 1816 James was at Prairie du Chien, employed by James Aird and until 1819 he was trading at Lac Qui Parle on the Upper Minnesota River.
     The following is from Lockwood's reminiscences which he wrote at the request of the Wisconsin State Historical Society; "...Tradition says that many years since, when there were many wintering traders in both the Upper and Lower Mississippi, it was the custom of every trader visiting Prairie du Chien, to have in store a keg of 8 or 9 gallons of good wine for convivial purposes when they should meet again in the spring, which occasions they would have great dinner parties and, as is the English custom, drink largely...But when I came into the country, there were but few of the old traders remaining...The traders and their clerks were then the aristocracy of the country; and to a Yankee at first sight, presented a singular state of society. To see gentlemen selecting wives of the nut-brown natives and raising children of mixed blood, the traders and clerks living in as much luxury as the resources of the country would admit...all this to an American was a novel mode of living and appeared to be hard fare...The traders in this country, at the time I came into it, were a singular compound; they were honest so far as they gave their word of honor to be relied upon; and in their business transactions between  themselves, seldom gave or took notes for balances or assumptions...Prairie du Chien is generally  spoken of as an old settled town. It is true that the Indians inhabited it many years since; and about the year 1737 the French established a trading post there,...But what advantages were these old trading posts to the settlement and development of the country such as Detroit, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes, St.Louis and St.Charles? All these places remained stationary for many years, until the Americans emigratrated to them and took hold of them with their enterprise, when they at once improved and most of them became places of business and importance...At this time at Prairie du Chien the events of the war of 1812 in that quarter, were fresh in the minds of everyone...When Gen.Smythe first arrived at Prairie du Chien, he arrested Michael Brisbois, then the most prominent citizen of the Prairie and placed him under a guard of soldiers for several days, charging him with treason, for having taken up arms against the U.S. After keeping him in duress for several days, he was sent on board of a boat under a guard to St.Louis...Although in a time of peace and our government received the country by treaty stipulation, the officers of the army treated the inhabitants as a conquered people and the commandants assumed all the authority of governors of a conquered country, arraigning and trying the citizens by courts-martial and sentencing them to ignominious punishments...And during Col.Chambers' reign, for some alleged immoral conduct he banished Joseph Rolette to an island, about 7 miles above Prairie du Chien, where he obliged him to pass the winter...Mr.Brisbois informed me that he had resided in Prairie du Chien about thirty years; and there was an old Scotchman by the name of James Aird, connected with the company by which I was first employed in the Indian trade, who generally wintered among the Sioux Indians and had been a trader about 40 years. There was also another man by the name of Duncan Graham, who had been engaged in the Indian trade about the same length of time and was captain in the British Indian Department during the war, from whom I obtained considerable information of the Indian country and of the earlier days of Prairie du Chien. Prairie du Chien was at this time, an important post of Indian trade and was considered by the Indians as neutral ground, where different tribes, although at war might visit in safety...Of the different Indian tribes that visited and traded more or less at Prairie du Chien, there were the Menomonees from Green Bay, who frequently wintered on the Mississippi; the Chippewas, who resided on the headwaters of the Chippewa & Black rivers; the Foxes, who had a large village where Cassville now stands, called Penah-i.e.Turkey; the Sauks, who resided about Galena & Dubuque; the Winnebagoes, who resided on the Wisconsin River; the Iowas, who then had a village on the Upper Iowa River; Wabashaw's band of Sioux, who resided on a beautiful prairie on the Iowa side of the Mississippi, about 120 miles above Prairie du Chien, with occasionally a Kickapoo & Pottawattamie...There was, when I firs visited the country, a band of Indians who had their village on a prairie on the west bank of the Mississippi, where the village of Winona, which means the eldest daughter, now stands, about 120 miles above Prairie du Chien. The chief was called Wa-ba-shaw; he was a very sensible Indian and was truly one of nature's noblemen. Although only chief of his band, he had great influence with the other chiefs. Above Winona was another large band of Indians, who had their village on the west bank of the Mississippi, where the Presbyterian mission now is, a few miles below St.Paul, whose chief was called Little Crow; a man of good sense and generally considered a good Indian. There was another small band who had their village at Mendota which signifies the meeting of the waters, whose chief was called Black Dog. He was not a man of much consequence. There was also another small band who had their village a short distance above, whose chief was Pone-chon, a man of little note. Where the village of Shakoppe now is, was an Indian village, whose chief bore that name, which simply means six; he possessed a good intellect, but was not popular among the traders, as he was considered very dishonest. At the Little Rapids was another village, called by the French Gens de Feuille or Leaf People. The name of their chief I do not recollect. There was a village of the Sissitons at the Rocher Blanc; above which, I remember no others. The Sissiton & Yankton bands seldom made any regular villages, as they roved from place to place, encamping temporarily for the purpose of hunting and that mostly among the buffaloes..."
     By 1823 Lockwood was in both the trading & the law professions in Michigan and by 1830 had a sawmill on the Chippewa River while holding the county Judge seat.
     In 1835 his brother, Ezekiel Lockwood III was living in Iowa and sometime between1834 & 1842, another brother, John Sherrod Lockwood had moved to Prairie du Chien.
     George W.Featherstonhaugh, while staying with Joseph R.Brown, the American Fur Co. trader at the headwaters of the Minnesota River, remarks in his journal in 1835 of  Brown's cook, "...he told me that she was a Nohcotah woman, the widow of that brother of Renville's whom the Chippeways had murdered and that Renville had sent her here to live and lament her widowhood. When she came into the room to remove the plates, I observed that she was tall and well made, with all the remains of a handsome woman. Like many others, she had been the favourite Indian wife of an American trader and had had a daughter by one Lockwood, a pretty young girl, about fourteen,...Mr.Brown, had done her the honour to remove her to his cabin, but this only en attendant, until he could persuade her daughter, the young beauty of fourteen, to live with him as his wife..."
     The brother of the Joseph Renville Jr.(Chatka), referred to above was Victor Renville (Ohiya), who was killed on the Mississippi River (near Little Falls) while leading a Dakota war party in 1833. Victor was married to Abigail (Winona) Crawford or Mazrdewin (Tinkling Iron), who was the daughter of Lewis Crawford & Mazadehdegawin (daughter of Red Wing II). The daughter of Lockwood was probably Susan Freniere (b.abt.1820), who may have taken the surname of Winona's second husband, Narcisse Freniere, who died while on a trip to the Missouri in 1831. Margaret Brown was born to Joseph R.Brown & Susan Frenier on 14 November 1835, the first of several children.