Lawrence (Laurenz) Edward Ermatinger II: (1736-1789)
     He was the son of Lawrence Ermatinger I & Anna Maria Buhl, born in Switzerland. Lawrence married Jemima Oakes (daughter of Joseph & Jemima) at London, England in 1764 and their children were: Ann M.(b.1766 Montreal, Que.)(m.William Jarrett), Lawrence E.III (b.abt.1772 Italy), George (1770/80-1841)(m.1st.Mary McDonald & 2nd.Catherine McKee in 1803), Charles O.(1776-1853)(m.Charlotte Kalawabide), Frederick W. & Jemima.
     He apparently arrived in Montreal from London about 1760 & established himself as fur trading merchant there. He committed a relative large amount of resource to trading ventures, carried out by other men. As an example, in the 1777-78 season, he financed the trading ventures of Charles Larche, William Shaw, James Finlay, John Gregory, Isaac Taylor & Forrest Oakes, sending about 100 men to Detroit, Niagara, Michilimackinac & Grand Portage. His brother-in-Law, Forrest Oakes, was entrusted with half that number of men trading out of Michilimackinac & Grand Portage.

Lawrence Edward Ermatinger III: (b.abt.1772)
    He was the son of Lawrence Ermatinger II & Jemima Oakes, born in Isle of Elba, Italy. Little else is known except that he had two sons: Edward (b.1797) & Francois (b.1798).

George Ermatinger: (1770/80-1841)
    He was the son of Lawrence Ermatinger II & Jemima Oakes, born in Montreal, Quebec. He married first, Mary McDonald and second to Catherine McKee (daughter of Thomas McKee & Therese Askin/Erskine) in 1803 and their children were: Jemimah A.(b.1805 Ontario), Thomas M.(b.1806 Ontario) & James R.(1808-1866)(m.Charlotte Cadotte in 1829).
     George fought for the British in the War of 1812 and died at Sault Ste.Marie in 1841.

Charles Oakes Ermatinger I: (1776-1853)
     He was the son of Lawrence Ermatinger II & Jemima Oakes, born in Montreal, Quebec. Charles was married to Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died in 1880. Charlotte was the daughter of Kadowaubeda (Brooken-Tooth or DeBreche), long time Ojibwe Chief of the Sandy Lake village whose family belonged to the Ahahwauk (Loon) totem or clan. Their children included; Anne (abt.1800-abt.1817), Charles O.II (b.abt.1801, Sault Ste.Marie), Frances (b.abt.1804), George (abt.1806-1822), Jemima (b.abt.1808)(m.Capt.Cameron), Madeleine or Striped Cloud (b.abt.1808) (m.William A.Aitken), Frederick Wm. (1811-1869),  James (1808-1866), William & Jane (m.Edward S.Lovell in 1840).
     Charles I was a NorthWest Company clerk about 1798 and later in 1805 a clerk at Lake Winnepeg for William McKay. By 1816 he was firmly established at Sault Ste.Marie and connected with the Hudson Bay Company & Lord Selkirk. In 1828 he retired from the fur trade and moved to the Island of Montreal.

James Rough Ermatinger: (1808-1866)
    He was the son of George Ermatinger & Catherine McKee, born in Michilimackinac. James married Charlotte Cadotte (1805-1887)(daughter of Michel Cadotte & Madeleine Equaysaguay) at Chippawa, Michigan in 1829. Their children were: Alexander, William, Isaac, Charles O., Elisha & Frederick. Charlotte was the widow of American fur trader Truman Warren and a descendent of a long line of fur traders & Ojibwe Chiefs at in northern Wisconsin.
     James traded & died at Jim Falls, Wisconsin.

Here is an edited version of e-mail sent by Chalk Courchane ( of information he's gathered on his family. Thanks Chalk
   Hi Dale,
 Here's a little information on Francis Ermatinger..that I promised you last "year".

Francis Ermatinger: (1797-1858)
     Francois (Francis or Frank) Ermatinger and his brother Edward were sons of Lawrence Edward Ermatinger and grandsons of Lawrence Ermatinger, who died in 1789 (birth date not given).  A Swiss merchant, Lawrence Ermatinger had made his way from London to Montreal in the late 1750s or early 1760s and achieved some successes in the fur trade. From this respected family came Edward and Frank, born, respectively, in 1797 on the island of Elba (Napoleon's first place of exile) and in 1798 in Lisbon.   He and his brother Edward were appointed clerks in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1818, sailed from Gravesend on May 18, and arrived at York Factory on August 14. On September 8, Francis left York Factory for the Severn district, where he was stationed during his first years of service.  In 1820?21 he had charge of Trout Lake, an outpost of Severn.  On July 21, 1825, Francis and his brother left York Factory for the Columbia district, where they had both been appointed to serve as clerks.  Francis was at Kamloops, where it was intended he should  spend the ensuing season when Governor Simpson passed there en route to Fort Langley in October, 1828. "From 1832 to 1838 Ermatinger was in charge of the trade with the Flathead Indians near the borders of the Snake country and along the headwaters of the Missouri.  In 1838 he was placed in charge of the Snake country trade at Forts Hall and Boise, and he remained in charge of Fort Hall until 1842 when he was promoted to the rank of chief trader.  George T. Allen, who frequently saw Ermatinger at Fort Vancouver during these years, described him as a `regular jolly jovial Cockney whom we sometimes styled Bardolf from the size and colour of his nose.' (Allan, "Reminiscences of Fort Vancouver")  "John H. Couch and Francis W. Pettygrove established mercantile houses in Oregon City in 1842 and 1843, respectively.  As the American settlements were largely concentrated in the vicinity of Willamette Falls, these stores received the business of the settlers who had formerly been dependent on the supplies at Fort Vancouver.  The Columbia Department could ill afford to lose this profitable trade, and in 1844 McLoughlin established a branch store at the Falls with Ermatinger in charge.  Ermatinger was a popular figure in Oregon City, and when the Provisional Government was reorganized in the summer of 1845 to include the British residents of the Willamette Valley as well as the Hudson's Bay Company, Ermatinger was appointed treasurer of the territory, a position which he held until he resigned to return to Canada.  He was succeeded by John Couch. "In June 1845 Governor Simpson instructed the board of management of the Columbia Department (McLoughlin, Ogden, and Douglas) to close the store at the Falls and send Ermatinger either to Fort Colvile or by sea to England. Although the Company's property at the Falls was sold to McLoughlin, the Company continued to maintain a store there; but Ermatinger was transferred to York Factory and departed with Warre and Vavasour in March 1846, leaving his wife and daughter behind with the McLoughlins.  In 1847?48 he had charge of the Athabasca district at Fort Chipewyan at the west end of Lake Athabasca, a position he retained until 1850 when he spent a year in Canada on furlough.  As seen in McLoughlin's letter to Ermatinger of 15 March 1848 (Letter 78), his family did not rejoin him until the late spring of that year.  He was in charge of Fort William on Lake Superior in 1852?53 and then retired from the Company on June first.  He moved to St. Thomas, Ontario, where he died in 1858."

The best biography to date on Francis Ermatinger is THE FUR TRADE LETTERS OF FRANCIS ERMATINGER 1818?1853?Lois H. McDonald, The Arthur H. Clark Co.??a must read!!!  Letters & comments from this book follow:
Letters of Francis Ermatinger (mostly to his brother Edward Ermatinger):     "Severn 22nd July 1823
    Dear Edward,
    Upon the return of our Indians I received your welcome letter and am sorry that you should have been disappointed in not getting one from me at York. The fact is before Mr.Keith's departure we were kept busy about trifling jobs and as I did not expect he would find you there, I confess that I was by no means anxious? so deferred the business until another opportunity.  I hear that some of our old shipmates have engaged upon much better terms than myself and am therefore determined not to remain out my contract without being put upon a balance with them as, when I agreed, Mr. Keith assured me that "there were only two through the whole country of equal pretensions who were upon higher terms" which left me without hesitation and I signed, but I find myself deceived and I think I have a right to complain which I shall do in my letters to the Great People.  I hope you will remain until the schooner reaches York as I have a couple Bills to get attested and must consequently send my letters open in order to save postage. As soon as I can bring the business to a close I have to embark for the dam hole Trout Lake where I must be starved (unless fed at my own expense) in a Pig stye and that for less than others have to live at ease. I think you might interest Mr. Robertson in my cause and get him to help annul my contract. To conclude, I must beg you will not think of remaining under Ross' terms and to guard against the worst. I have sent enclosed a Bill of balance which I hope will enable you to Draw upon me for 100 pounds sterling. Should you embark before the schooner arrives, take out of my Trunk the B. Coat and Pantaloons for McDonald. You can give them to any one who may remain at the Factory for him. Also get the Publishing Surtout removed from my account that Work sent for me and which I now return.  You will soon hear from me again & in the mean time believe me     Dear Edward Yours Affectionately
   Frs. Ermatinger"

Wife #1 - a Cree woman
(unknown daughter) ERMATINGER, was born in the Severn District of Canada under Hudson's Bay.  She was born prior to 1825. Frank left her and her mother when he went to the Columbia Department in 1825. He never saw them again, although he did provide for them.  She eventually married David Bird in March of 1841.

Wife #2 - Cleopatra, more commonly called Cleo a Okanogan woman
Lawrence ERMATINGER, was born on August 23, 1828, in Fort Kamloops. Frank took control of Lawrence not long after he was born.  He took Lawrence from his mother in 1831 at age three and sent him to Fort Vancouver to be cared for and educated under the direction of Dr. John McLoughlin and his wife Marguerite.

Wife#3  - Mary Three Dresses a Pend d'Oreille woman (married 1835)
Mary ERMATINGER, was born in Apr 1838 in Western Montana, and on 23 Jan 1863 in St.Ignatius, Catholic Mission, MT Terr., married Pierre ASHLEY, son of William (Asselin) ASHLEY and Margaret "Maggie" FINLEY, who was born about 1843 in Montana Terr..  Mary died on 14 Oct 1940 in St.Ignatius, Lake Co., Montana and was buried on 17 Oct 1940 in St.Ignatius, Lake Co., Montana.  Pierre died on 23 Nov 1902 in St.Ignatius, Missoula Co., MT and was buried on 25 Nov 1902 in St.Ignatius, Missoula Co., MT.  Pierre was also married to Mary (Blue?Eyed Mary) TILLEA.
                                                                   MARY ERMATINGER
     Mary Ermatinger was born in Montana at Tobacco Plains according to her own testimony.  She was a member of the Pend d'Oreille or Ear Drop People.  Because her father was a chief trader with the Hudson Bay Company, her people may have been on a winter buffalo hunt when she was born.  The Pend d'Oreilles and Flatheads usually resided farther to the south in Bitterroot Valley and the Mission Valley. At the time of her birth, her father, Francis Ermatinger, was trading with the Flatheads and Pend d'Oreilles from a base at Fort Hall, Idaho.  Francis and Mary Three?Dresses probably met each other about 1835 or earlier.  They had two other children, both sons who had died in infancy... "Before babies were born to the Flatheads and Pend d'Oreilles, the mother and fathers had to be very careful to observe a long list of taboos.  This was done in order to protect the child from prenatal and postnatal harm.  When the time came, the mother was assisted by midwives as she squatted on a robe and grasped a mounted wooden bar.  If  labor was prolonged or unusually difficult the medicine man, or shaman, was called for."... "When going away from the lodge the mothers took their babies along on their backs in birchbark cradle boards, baby bags of skin, or cradleboards of wood, called im?pol?aih.  The Flatheads loved their children without restraint and pampered them as much as was practical.  Young Flathead were not weaned until they were several years old, and went naked even longer than that, except in severely cold weather...When Mary was about four months old, her father was escorting a party of missionaries (including a Swiss gentleman named John Sutter) from the Rendezvous at Popo Agie River to Fort Hall.  The four women of the party were the second group of white women to cross over the Continental Divide.  This was July 15, 1838.  Whether Mary or her mother were with him is not known.  In the Pend d'Oreille tongue Mary was called Malee Sa?ma?mae, or Seme, meaning a person of French descent, according to Clarence Woodcock and the Flathead Culture Committee.  She was also known as Mary the Younger, to distinguish her from her mother, Mary the Elder.  Both Marys were also referred to as Three?Dresses.  About 1865 Mary Ermatinger married a young 1/2 Spokane Indian, Perrish (or Pierre) Ashley, the son of William Ashley (Asselin) and Margaret "Maggie" Finley.  Maggie Finley was the daughter of Jocko Finley.  By her own words on September 25, 1913, she states that they were married by the Catholic Fathers at St.Ignatius Mission.  Mary and Pierre would have twelve children...Besides Mary Ermatinger's two Pend d'Oreille brothers, she had four half? brothers and sisters:  Lawrence, Frances Marie, an Okanogan sister, and a Cree sister (who later married a David Bird).
   An article about her appeared in Sam John's ten volume PIONEERS, on pages 183 to 184.  One page of the article is missing.
     "There is a grand old lady who is now over 100 years of age and of the Flathead Indian tribe, whose story should be recorded.  In the rich lower Flathead valley of western Montana lies a 40 acre piece of virgin soil...situated at the base of the McDonald Peak area in the Mission mountains, and is owned by this venerable woman, Mary Ashley, without doubt the oldest woman of the tribe.  She steadfastly refused to allow the sod turned on this land, so it lies there untouched and virgin serving to keep her Indian soul spiritually in tune with nature and the past..."This was the best she could do when the inroads of civilization compelled the ending of the roving mode of Indian life she understood and loved so well..."As a mother she attended not only her own children but her grandchildren as well, who grew up and had allotments round about her homestead...for she excelled in the knowledge now fast disappearing, of recognizing and concocting for use the various healing herbs nature had deposited in these parts.  She knew the Husk?Kus with its several medicinal uses.  It was also used for chewing and smoking as was also the Kinnickinick.  As a blood purifier, she used the tiny Princess pines.  "Another evidence of Grandma Ashley's efficiency was her well?stocked larder.  She followed the chase in season, going with others of the tribe who were energetic and well?horsed, to the buffalo grounds to the eastward, and her parfleches on return were always well filled with the fruits of the hunt."   "With other women she gathered in May the bitterroot, known as "Spetlem". This served as a vegetable in the diet of the natives and provided a starchy element to the food.  In June the "slokem" or wild carrot was collected.  Very important was the "elwa" or camas and often cooked with this root as a condiment was a parasitic pine moss called "skautemikan".  "Pstcheiu", a white root, was another vegetable.  The service berry, found everywhere, was gathered in great quantities and dried for winter use, as were many other berries.  A sweet addition to the native diet in the spring was found by eating the inner part of the stem on the sunflowers everywhere evident on sunny hillsides..."

Wife #4 - Catherine Sinclair married  August 10, 1842 at Fort George, Columbia Dist., Oregon Terr. She was born about 1824 and baptised three years later on July 9, 1827, (the daughter of William Sinclair, Jr. and Mary Wadin McKay.  Her father was at the time a clerk at Rainy Lake.  He had entered the HBC in 1810 as an aprentice.  Edward had known him while at Island Lake.  Sinclair was the eldest son of a Cree woman and a high ranking HBC officer.  Mary McKay was the daughter of Marguerite Wadin McKay, later the wife of Dr. John McLoughlin.  Her uncle on her mother's side was Thomas McKay, early trapper of the HBC and Oregon pioneer.  Her aunt Betsy Sinclair bore a child of Sir George Simpson, and later married Robert Miles, HBC accountant.  Her uncle, James Sinclair, was a free trader and merchant at Red River.  He led the 1841 contingent of Red River families destined for settlement on the Nisqually Plains across the Rocky Mountains) Catherine died on 11 Nov 1876 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and was buried in Nov 1876 in St.John's Cem., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Frances Marie ERMATINGER, was born on 3 Jun 1843 in union with Francis Ermatinger, and another daughter from an affair she had with an HBC employee while Frank was in England.  After much grief, she and Frank were reconciled.  They lived happily the rest of his life.

Family Pedigree Charts;David Charles Courchane;1989.
BIOGRAPHY:  E.E. Rich; p. 212?213
BIOGRAPHY; William S. Sampson (Editor); p.130?131
(Cf. McLeod (ed.), PEACE RIVER, p. 34)
BIOGRAPHY; Albert Brooks Fogdall; pp.90?91
THE FUR TRADE LETTERS OF FRANCIS ERMATINGER 1818?1853?Lois H. McDonald, The Arthur H. Clark Co.
(McLoughin, LETTERS, THIRD SERIES, pp.137?38; Robertson,
CORRESPONDENCE BOOK, pp.212?213; Throckmorton, OREGON ARGONAUTS, p.38;