James O'Fallon: (1749 - bef.1795)
    He was born in Athlone/County of Roscommon, Ireland and was educated as a physician, by the time he came to America, shortly before the Revolutionary War. He married, Frances ("Fanny") Eleanor Clark (daughter of John Clark & Ann Rogers) in 1791 at Louisville, Kentucky and they had sons: John B.(17911-1865) & Benjamin (1793-1842). Fanny was the sister of  the  "Father of the West", George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) & William Clark (1770-1838) of the "Corps of Discovery", both played a major role in clearing the way for European settlement of the northern half of the middle west.
     James crossed the atlantic in (shipwrecked off the coast, shortly before the colonies revolted) 1774, going to Wilmington, North Carolina and in 1776 found himself jailed, "as a man dangerous to the patriotic cause". During the Revolutionary War, James served as a captain in the rebel calvary in 1777 and as a senior surgeon in Washington army in 1779. After the war he moved (1780's) from Philadelphia to Charleston, South Carolina with Major Pierce Butler & Alexander Gillon, later settled in Louisville, Kentucky where he became involved with the South Carolina Yazoo Company.
     In 1789 (the year the states unite under the Constitution & George Washington as President), O'Fallon found himself on "hot" real estate. The British in the western Great Lakes were sending allied northern tribes on raids into Kentucky, while also on the brink of war with Spain and planning [Lord Edward Fitzgerald - Major of the 54th Reg't.- leaves Mackinac on what is presumed to be a military survey of the Mississippi from over 100 miles above the Falls of St.Anthony (probably to Robert Dickson's post at Sauk Rapids) to New Orleans] an invasion down the Mississippi to Spanish Louisiana. At the same time American settlers were depopulating Illinois Country for the safety of the west bank of the Mississippi where the Spanish welcomed them with opened arms and free land. Mean while, the new U.S. government sends Lt.John Armstrong on a information gathering mission to St.Louis & the Missouri River.
     Late in 1789, Governor Telfair of Georgia and the colonies General Assembly, sold to the S.C.Yazoo Co. 5 million acres of land on the east side of the Mississippi River (for $60,000) for the purpose of settlement. As the companies Agent General & Attorney, O'Fallon was given the task of settling the land grant area. During the winter of 1789/90 he raised a volunteer army of settlers from Kentucky, formulating detailed plans for the colony. On 16 July 1790, James wrote to the Spanish Louisiana Governor, Estavan Miro, regarding the plans of colonizing of  the companies land grant, "...I have been extensively commissioned and secretly charged, to negotiate with your Excellency and personally to wait upon you, at New Orleans...through the policy which I have urged them [the partners in the company] to the adoption of, with Spain, that they have unanimously fallen in with this plan, of uniting with the Spaniards...It is a fact well known and acknowledged throughout the whole of this Western Country...that the inhabitants thereof, can derive no commercial or political advantage whatever, by their being subjected to Congressional Supremacy placed in the Atlantic States; and that their last hope of ever rising into any consequence, as a people, must be founded, on confederating, independently, among themselves, on the basis of a Separate Sovereignty from that of the present Congress...the Company will, at all events, push forward their settlement, with system, precaution & force...The Company consists of Gentlemen of great fortune & reputation, highly connected and by their dependants posts and Grants of lands to characters of weight and of the same antifederal principles with themselves, forming a chain of mighty interest from New York, from the very midst of Congress itself...All this I am clearly confident I can be instrumental in bringing about, with the aid of our mutual friend, General Wilkinson...". On December 17, 1790 James writes to Col.Brian Bruin, who resides in the Washitaw settlement near Natches, "...in the month of March, I expect to be down in the neighbourhood of the Yazoo River, with a Regular Batallion consisting of 750 privates...With these go between 3 and 4000 Militia men, well armed, with their respective familys...These are my recuits. Those of the Company are to start, about the same time, through the Creek nation, 2000 from Georgia, 700 from South Carolina and 500 from North Carolina. Gen.MacDowell, Col.Farr & Major Christmas head the 3 divisions...Gen.[George Rogers] Clarke the Illinois Hero, is to command the whole, Regulars & Militia, when met. Gen.Sevier (now in Congress) is second in command. The whole is under my direction...No colony ever settled, commenced with such force...". Again on December 21, 1790, James writes to Col.Bryan Bruin, "...our fixed purpose is, immediately to become organized into a Separate Government, like Vermont, unconnected with the Atlantic States, and to ally ourselves with Spain, offensively & defensively, as the impregnable barrier of Louisiana, if they will have us...All we want of Spain, is a small indulgence in our trade and to unite with us, sincerely in reconciling the Choctaws & Chickasaws. If they do not, the British offer it. And if neither do it, Congress will attempt it. And if all fail, why, Congress, The Creeks and our own force will unite, in exterminating them, should they prove hostile. But our first offer is to Spain...".
     Early in 1791, O'Fallon's must of realized his plans were falling apart. He fires a letter off to Spanish Gov.Mira, charging him of inciting the colonies neighboring tribes [Col.Bruin & Gen.Wilkinson, loyal to the Spanish, informed them of O'Fallon's designs], than President Washington issued a Proclamation in the previous August "...against the whole enterprise..." and again in March a Proclamation stating, "Whereas it hath been represented to me that James O'Fallon is levying an armed force in that part of the State of Virginia which is called Kentucky, disturbs the public peace and sets at defiance the treaties of the United States with the Indian tribes...that those who have incautiously associated themselves with the said James O'Fallon may be warned of their danger, I have therefore thought fit, to publish this proclamation here by declaring that all persons violating the treaties and act aforesaid shall be prosecuted with the utmost rigor of the law. And I do, moreover, require all officers of the United States whom it may concern to use their best exertions to bring to justice any persons offending in the premises...". In May of 1791, Washington is joined by Thomas Jefferson in condemning O'Fallon by his letter to the Attorney of the District of Kentucky, "Sir, A certain James O'Fallon is, as we are informed, undertaking to raise, organize and commission an army, of his own authority, and independent of that of the government, the object of which is, to go and possess themselves of lands which have never yet been granted by any authority...with an avowed design to hold them by force against any power, foreign or domestic...it cannot be permitted that all the inhabitants of the United States shall be involved in the calamities of war and the blood of thousands of them be poured out, merely that a few adventurers may possess themselves of lands...they may be assured, that if this undertaking be prosecuted, the whole force of the United States will be displayed to punish the transgression..."
     James may have not been concerned with these threats from the fledging government, for by this time the new United States had attempted to protect it citizens by sending Gen.Harmar with 1,500 men into Indian Territory to "chastise" the tribes who were allied to the British, but this force was soundly defeated on the Maumee. Unable to deal effectively with the northern problem Washington sent Gen.St.Clair with a force to Natchez Country to oust the colony and arrest O'Fallon (in October of 1791 the Spanish Crown ordered his arrest from New Orleans). St.Clair was successful with his mission in the lower Mississippi but failed in his mission to the north, where his army of 2,000 troops were defeated (about 900 killed) by the British allied northern tribal confederacy (led by Miami Chief Little Turtle) at the headwaters of the Wabash.
     The remainder of O'Fallon's life is still somewhat of a mystery to me but he apparently survived his squabble with the U.S. and is found practicing his profession at Fort Steuben (the fort was ironically built on the Ohio River in 1786/87, by Maj. Hamtramck & an American Regiment, sent by the Continental Congress to protect surveyors mapping the Northwest Territories & to keep settlers out of the Ohio Valley). In February of 1793, his friend Thomas Paine wrote him words of encouragement to keep writing and in September of 1793 another friend, Anthony Wayne, writes offering him a position as Senior Surgeon for his planned punitive military expedition against the British allied northern tribes. By March of 1794 O'Fallon's estate  is being distributed by his wills executor, William Crogan.
John Benjamin O'Fallon: (1791 - 1865)
     He was the son of James O'Fallon & Frances E.Clark and married 1st.to Harriett Stokes and married 2nd.to Ruth Caroline Sheets. His children were: Ellen, William, Harriett, Caroline (m. Dr.Charles Alexander Pope), James J. (m. Ann Harris), Benjamin (m.1st.to Sallie Champe Carter & m.2nd.to Mary Shreve Carter), Henry A. & John J. (m. Caroline Mastin). His father died when he was young and was raised & educated by his mother, step-fathers & uncles.
     John fought in the War of 1812, rising to the rank of captain. After the war he returned to St.Louis where he became an assistant to his uncle, William Clark, who was Indian Agent there. He later contracted to the U.S. Army, furnishing supplies and re-invested his growing fortune into promoting railroad ventures. He died at his home in St.Louis on 17 December, 1865.
Benjamin O'Fallon: (1793 - 1842)
    He was the son of James O'Fallon & Frances E.Clark and married to Sophia Lee. His children were: Fannie C., John, William C. (m.Miss McCreary), Charles T., Emily R. & Ellen.
      American troops arrived at Prairie du Chien in June of 1816 and constructed Ft.Crawford there. Benjamin later became the Indian Agent at Ft.Crawford and a reference was made of him on 10 Feb.1818, "...A duel fought this morning between Mr O'Fallon, Indian Agent and Lt.Shade of the garrison-the latter received the second shot in his under jaw-O'Fallon unfortunately(?) escaped without injury...". And on 16 feb.1818, O'Fallon the Amer.Ind. agent at Prairie du Chien writes;   "...What do you suppose, sir, has been the result of the passage through my agency, of this British nobleman? (Lord Selkirk)...Two entire bands, and part of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined (Robert) Dickson, who has distributed to them large quantities of Indian presents, together with flags, medals, etc...A courier, who had arrived a few days since, confirms the belief that Dickson is endeavoring to undo what I have done and secure to the British govt. the affections of the Sioux...Dickson, as I have before observed, is situated near the head of the St.Peter's, to which place he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River establishment, in carts...He is directed to build a fort on the highest land between Lac du Travers and Red River, which he supposed will be the established line between the two countries. This fort will be defended by 20 men, with 2 small pieces of artillery...". Benjamin goes north to council with the Sioux, returning to Prairie du Chien on the 28th of February. Again that spring O'Fallon leaves (10 April) Prairie du Chien with 50-60 soldiers for a council with the Sioux at the Falls of St.Anthony. In a letter written by  Dr.Samuel Peters at P.D.C., on 25 jul.1818,  we find out what happened on this trip, "...Mr.O'Fallen, Deputy Indian Agent & Lt.Armstrong with 60 soldiers sailed in 2 armed boats from Prairie du Chien up the Miss. to River St.Peter by order of Lt.Col.Wm.Chambers to intercept Col.Robert Dickson coming [as they thought] with 500 Indians to take the Fort and villiage of P.D.C. and they met Col.Dickson near River St.Croix in 2 birch canoes with his wife & 3 children-when W.O.Fallon arrested Col.Dickson as his prisoner & put him under a sergeant & his guard & sailed back to P.D.C. where he arrived on 27 april with his prisoner and after a salute to the garrison the prisoner was conducted under a guard to the garrison & there examined by Col.Chambers and then permitted to go to his family then in P.D.C...". Dickson was on his way from his post on Big Stone Lake to Prairie du Chien when arrested by O'Fallon at the mouth of the St.Croix River, for having no passport - Dickson was sent to St.Louis by Col.Chambers, on charges of attempting to alienate the Sioux to the U.S. Government. In May, Dr.S.Peters writes again of the incident, "...Col.Robert Dickson was married to Madam Elizabeth Weenenow & she was baptized the same day Col.Dickson was ordered on board an armed boat under Lt.Armstrong and a guard of soldiers and W.O.Fallon and sailed a prisoner down the Miss. to St Lewis 600 Miles there to be judged by Gov.Clark. I was informed by ___ ___ that the articles alledged against Col.Dickson were: 1) He had come within the U.S. without a passport. 2) He had traded with the Indians within the line of the U.S. 3) He had engaged 500 Indians & more to join him to come & take the garrison & village of  P.D.C. 4) He was come a spy into the U.S. 5) He had furs and peltry coming down the River St.Peter which was contrary to law & of course were forfeited to Congress of the U.S..." A letter written by Dickson (18 jun.1818) at Green Bay reaches Mackinac saying, "...he had been discharged very honorably by Gov.Clarke & he was waiting at Green bay for the arrival of his family which was daily expected & then he should be at Mackinaw - He added that O.Fallon was dismissed from being Intendant of Indians & Col.Chambers was ordered to attend at Washington..."
     Fort Snelling was established at the mouth of the Minnesota River and a couple of years later Lawerence Taliaferro, the Indian agent at the new fort writes to Benjamin of Sacs & Fox attacking Southern Yancton near O'Fallon and Sisseton/Wahpacoota near the Blue Earth. Total of 60 Sioux killed & 12 prisoners - Taliaferro rescued a woman (Yankton) prisoner at Fox village near the lead mines. She was at agency awaiting the Sissetons & Northern Yankton arrival. The Sac were claiming 11 prisoners at their village on the des Moines R.- they are attempting to possess the hunting grounds of the River Des Moines to it's source.
     Council Bluff (Lewis & Clark held council with the Oto and Missouri Indians on August 3, 1804, which gave the locale its name of "Council Bluff) was the site of the Upper Missouri Indian Agency, with headquarters at Fort Atkinson. The agency was managed by Benjamin O'Fallon and sub-agent John Dougherty. O'Fallon arranged for a delegation of Mexicans to visit the Council Bluff  in September 1824 to conclude a peace treaty with the Pawnee and in 1825 he visited the tribes along the Missouri and Platte with General Henry Atkinson to negotiate a hands-off agreement for Americans traveling to Sante Fe. Benjamin was present at the treaty "...between the United States and their citizens, and the Teton, Yancton, and Yanctonies bands of the Sioux tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the United States army, and Major Benjamin O'Fallon, Indian Agent,...Done at Fort Look-out, near the three rivers of the Sioux pass, this 22d day of June, A.D. 1825,..." [also present were: Maw-too-an-be-kin (the Black Bear), Wacan-o-hi-gnan (the Flying Medicine), Wah-ha-ginga (the Little Dish), Cha-pon-ka (the Musqueto), Ta-tan-ka-guenish-qui-gnan (the Mad Buffalo), A. L. Langham, secretary to the commission, H. Leavenworth, colonel, U. S. Army, S. W. Kearney, brevet major, First Infantry, G. H. Kennerly, U. S. S. Indian agent, P. Wilson, U. S. S. Indian agent, Wm. Armstrong, captain, Sixth Regiment Infantry, Wm. Gordon & Jean Baptiste Dorion, Interpreters].
     Benjamin  was one of the principal partners the Missouri Fur Company, headed by Dr. Pilcher and at the same time one of the most efficient United States Agents for Indian Affairs. He was largely instrumental in bringing about the treaties between the U.S. Government and the various Indian tribes to the west & north of St. Louis. Benjamin and his brother John are mentioned as St.Louis slave owners, in  the "Narrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave".