William Powell: (1810 - 1885)
The following is more from Williams interview with Lyman C.Draper [William Powell's Recollections] published by the Wisconsin Historical Society in 1912:
"...From Iometah, Oshkosh and other aged Menominee, I learned that the Sauk and Foxes once had a town at Red Banks; later they removed to Green Bay and got into trouble with the French and were made to retire to Little Butte des Morts - now Neenah (Wisconsin). Here they exacted tribute in the following way; some of their leaders would post themselves on either side of the stream with a long pole, held up and leaning over the water, indicating that the trader's boats must heave to and pay tribute before proceeding farther. Getting tired of these exactions, the French got up an expedition (Louis de la Porte, sieur de Louvigny's punitive campaign against them in 1716) and drove them off from Little Butte des Morts. The Sauk and Foxes then retired to Big Butte des Morts and at that point renewed their exactions in the same way...there were some traders' boats soon coming up,...In time (Paul Marin & Jean Guyon Dubuisson's extermination campaign against them 1730) the flotilla appeared in sight, each canoe covered with an oilcloth over a ridge-pole, like a roof. Beneath this were a body of armed French, while a large body of Menominee and Chippewa marched up the river by land. As soon as the fleet hove in sight of the town,...the tribute poles were posted, the French made for the town landing and the people rushed down to see and meet them. Then the boat coverings were suddenly thrown off and the soldiers fired on the Sauk and Fox assemblage, who as they fled back to their houses to get their weapons, were met by the Menominee and Chippewa in the rear and soon overpowered. Some fled to Winneconne, about three miles distant, where many were overtaken and Killed. There their bones were left to bleach upon the ground, hence the name - Winneconne, "the place of skulls". Thus the Sauk and Foxes were again driver westward, up the Fox and down the Wisconsin. A part of them went up to Puckaway and Buffalo Lakes and settled there; the rest settled at Sauk Prairie on the Wisconsin, where subsequently they were joined by the others [estimates of Fox population at the time of European first contact are about 2500 to 10,000 people - in 1733 estimates of Fox total population is about 100].
...Among the Menominee, the White Beaver (to which Oshkosh belonged), the Wolf, the Turtle, the Crane and the Bear were the principal clans - there were several lesser ones, such as the Turkey, etc. Tomah was a large, fine man, much respected by whites and Indians. Souligny was fond of relating his war exploits and rather magnified them. He was about five feet nine inches high, very stoutly built and strong. He died about 1867 of erysipelas, nearly eighty years old, but well preserved. Waupomasah, nicknamed Old Sore-Eyes, was principal chief of the Menominee at Lake Shawano. The "Admired Man" is the meaning of his name. He was out in the War of 1812 and died at Keshena about 1868, fully eighty years of age. Iometah died about the same year that Souligny did - very aged and childish. He was a short, thickset man, about five feet eight inches, an excellent Indian in character. Poegonah, generally called Big Soldier, died in 1834 or 1835 nearly ninety years of age, at the village of his name in Calumet County, on Lake Winnebago,...he had gone on every war expedition with his people and ever with other tribes. Once he was out in a campaign against the Pawnee...He seemed to pride himself in having his scalp-lock nicely trimmed and ornamented, as much as to say to his enemies in war, "Come and take it if you can!" But he had an abiding faith that no foe would ever possess it...in the skirmish near Cassville he did not discharge his gun, but rushed among the combatants to show his fearlessness..Oshkosh possessed, in a remarkable degree, a knowledge of the traditions of his people. He was a man of strong sense and died at Keshena, Shawano County, August 15, 1858..."
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